Scientists have announced that hologram theory could be true in some “realistic models” of the universe.
The “holographic principle” suggests that a mathematical definition of the universe actually needs one fewer dimension than it appears. What has been believed as three dimensional could just be the image of only two dimensional processes on an immense cosmic horizon.
Results attained by scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) now revealed that the holographic principle is valid even in a flat space-time.
Most people know about holograms from credit cards or cash banknotes. Holograms are two dimensional, but to the human eye they seem to be three dimensional. The universe could be very similar to this example.
Daniel Grumiller (TU Wien) mentioned that back in 1997, the physicist Juan Maldacena advanced the idea that there was a link between gravitational theories in curved spaces and quantum field theories in spaces with one fewer dimension.
Gravitational phenomena are defined in a theory with three spatial dimensions, while the behavior of quantum particles is calculated in a theory with only two spatial dimensions, while the results of both calculations can be related to each other.
The discovery meant that, for example, equations which are valid in astronomy could also be used to repair a CD-player. This method has been proven to be successful. Over ten thousand scientific studies about Maldacena’s “AdS-CFT-correspondence” have been published until today.
Grumiller has thought that a correspondence principle could also be true for our real universe. To test this belief, gravitational theories have to be built, a hypothesis which does not require extravagant anti-de-sitter spaces, but only a flat space. For three years, Grumiller and his colleagues at TU Wien (Vienna) have been developing this, along with the MIT, the University of Edinburgh, IISER Pune, Harvard and the University of Kyoto.
When quantum particles are mixed up, they cannot be explained individually. They are forming a single quantum object, even if they are far apart from one another.
Together with Rudranil Basu, Arjun Bagchi and Max Riegler, Grumiller succeeded to reveal that the entropy of entanglement will take the same value in a low dimension quantum field theory and in flat quantum gravity.
This finding however, does not prove yet that the universe is a hologram, but is a move towards the validity of the correspondence principle in the universe.
The research is published in the journal Physical Review Letters.
Image Source: Pop Chassid